There are many reasons to learn how to divide afoul into syllables. Separating a word like afoul into syllables is mainly to make it easier to read and pronounce. The syllable is the smallest sound unit in a word, and the separation of the afoul into syllables allows speakers to better segment and emphasize each sound unit.
Knowing how to separate afoul into syllables can be especially useful for those learning to read and write, because it helps them understand and pronounce afoul more accurately. Furthermore, separating afoul into syllables can also be useful in teaching grammar and spelling, as it allows students to more easily understand and apply the rules of accentuation and syllable division.
In the case of the word afoul, we find that when separating into syllables the resulting number of syllables is 1. With this in mind, it's much easier to learn how to pronounce afoul, as we can focus on perfecting the syllabic pronunciation before trying to pronounce afoul in full or within a sentence. Likewise, this breakdown of afoul into syllables makes it easier for us to remember how to write it.